## SINE WAVE

Sine-wave behavior is a prevalent phenomenon in everyday occurrences, observed in motions like pendulum swings, spring oscillations, and the sinusoidal variation of the day length over a year. Power generation worldwide is also based on the sinusoidal voltage generated by a conducting coil rotating in a magnetic field. Time-dependent cyclic motions involve a frequency, measured in hertz, with the standard power frequency in North America being 60 Hz.

### Significance of Sine Waves in Circuit Analysis

Circuits capable of generating sine-wave signals exist, with energy sources ranging from batteries to utility power. These sources maintain a constant voltage character despite changes in load, characterized by low source impedance. Laboratory sine-wave generators cover a wide frequency range from a few hertz to many megahertz.

When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across a capacitor or inductor, a sinusoidal current flows, making it the only voltage waveform that replicates itself as a current waveform in these components. Sine waves serve as the foundational basis for most circuit analyses, as they uniformly appear in circuits comprising linear passive components (resistors, inductors, and capacitors).

While other waveforms can be introduced, the analysis becomes highly mathematical. Educational emphasis is placed on frequency analysis, exploring how circuits respond to sine waves of various frequencies. Network synthesis, an advanced topic, addresses the inverse problem of finding a circuit that matches a required frequency response.

**Describing a Wave Using a Sine Curve**

A Sine Curve describes a wave by representing its amplitude (height or power) and frequency (the proximity of each wave peak to the next). When these characteristics are specified, a sine curve is generated with a distinct height and frequency. This applies to various waves such as sound waves, ocean waves, radio waves, or any other wave phenomenon.

**Graphing Sine and Cosine Functions**

To graph Sine and Cosine functions, the process is as follows. A Sine curve crosses the center line at each interval of π (π), while a Cosine curve is similar but out of phase with the Sine curve. Specifically, a Sine wave crosses the center line at π intervals, whereas a Cosine wave peaks at π intervals and crosses the center line at ½π intervals, corresponding to the points where Sine waves peak.