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What is the purpose of physical verification in chip design and layout?
Differentiate between static and time-varying mismatch in clock distribution.
Describe the H-tree network configuration and its usefulness in clock distribution.
How are noise margins defined, and what do NML and NMH represent?
Explain the concept of random errors in clock distribution and their origin.
How does an anti-aliasing filter work, and what is its role in preventing aliasing errors?
How does the complementary clock signal play a role in reducing charge injection when using CMOS transmission gates?
How does clock conditioning, particularly clock gating, affect clock distribution, and what is the trade-off associated with clock gating?
How does a logic synthesis tool operate with regard to the given hardware description and technology library?
How are standard cells typically organized and arranged in ASIC layouts?
What is the purpose of parasitic extraction in physical verification?
What is the purpose of physical verification in chip design and layout? 
Significance of Physical Verification in the IC Design Process
Explain the purpose of the low-pass filter in the analog-to-digital conversion process.
How are multiple metal layers utilized in modern GAs for channel routing?


What metals are commonly used in the silicide process, and how are they deposited onto the wafer surface?
Why is it important to recognize the inter-relationship between unit processes within each module?
What is the significance of the voltage coefficient (VCR1) in resistor characteristics, and what contributes to it in the case of an n-well resistor?
Why does the resistivity of the silicon material used to fabricate a resistor generally increase with increasing temperature?
What is the significance of the self-aligned process in CMOS fabrication?
Why should the noise margins be larger than 0, and what is the preferred size for noise margins in a digital circuit?
What is the significance of the term “strong inversion” in the operation of a MOSFET?
Why do dynamic circuits require a minimal clock rate?
What is the thermal voltage, and what is the typical value of the intrinsic carrier concentration in silicon at room temperature?
Why do CMOS circuits often consume very little current when in a static state, and how does this characteristic benefit low-power devices like calculators?


What is the primary material used for the deposition of metallic interconnect layers in CMOS fabrication?
What is the primary effect of increasing the W/L ratio of transistors in terms of gate performance?
What is the purpose of a chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP)?
What is the primary function of an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) in modern electronics?
What is the primary purpose of the self-aligned silicide module in semiconductor manufacturing?
What is the primary purpose of the PUN (Pull-Up Network) in complementary CMOS logic?
What is the origin of the term “integrated circuit” (IC)?
What is the primary advantage of the standard cell approach to physical design?
What is the primary consideration when designing a clock network to minimize clock skew?
What is the primary disadvantage of static gates in sequential circuits?


What is the “undefined region” in the context of digital circuits, and why should steady-state signals avoid this region?
What is the definition of a perfect clock, and why are perfect clocks not achievable in practice?
What is the depletion or space-charge region in a pn-junction diode?
What is the difference between a positive resist process and a negative resist process?
What is the basic structure of a pn-junction diode?
What is the concept of “fan-in” in digital circuits, and how does it relate to gate complexity and performance?
What is the concept of “self-loading” when it comes to transistor sizing in gate design?
What is the counterpart of an ADC, and what does it do?
What is the consequence of applying a reverse voltage to a pn-junction diode?
What is the advantage of patterning metallic interconnects at the end of the chip fabrication process?




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