Checked Exceptions in Java are exceptions that must be explicitly handled or declared by the programmer. These exceptions are subclasses of the
Throwable class, excluding
RuntimeException, and their subclasses.
The key characteristics of checked exceptions
- Explicit Handling: Checked exceptions must be either caught using a try-catch block or declared in the method signature using the
throwskeyword. If the programmer fails to do either of these, the code will not compile, resulting in a compilation error.
- Checked by the Compiler: The Java compiler enforces the handling or declaration of checked exceptions. This ensures that the developer is aware of the exceptional conditions that may arise and is prompted to handle them appropriately.
Examples of Checked Exceptions include
IOException: It is thrown when an input-output operation fails or is interrupted.
SQLException: This exception is raised for errors that occur while working with databases using SQL.
FileNotFoundException: It is thrown when attempting to access a file that does not exist.
InvocationTargetException: This exception wraps an exception thrown by a method invoked through reflection.
CloneNotSupportedException: It is thrown when an attempt is made to clone an object that does not implement the
ClassNotFoundException: This exception is raised when trying to load a class that does not exist.
InstantiationException: It is thrown when an attempt is made to create an instance of an abstract class or an interface.
These checked exceptions help to ensure that exceptional situations are handled explicitly, making Java code more robust and reliable. By requiring programmers to handle or declare checked exceptions, Java promotes better error handling and increases the reliability of software systems.
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