The Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB) lifetime of intrinsic low-k dielectrics can be negatively affected by an increase in porosity. When minimizing other factors, such as defects and impurities, the breakdown and TDDB performance of low-k dielectrics tend to degrade as porosity increases. However, it is worth noting that the failure kinetics remain relatively consistent, and the percolation model, originally developed for gate oxides, may be applicable in this context.
The introduction of low-k dielectrics into the Backend-of-Line (BEOL) and the continuous Critical Dimension (CD) scaling significantly reduces the reliability margin of intermetal dielectrics. As a result, further in-depth research work is essential to address these reliability concerns and understand the impact of porosity on the TDDB lifetime of low-k dielectrics.
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