Signal integrity refers to the reliable transmission of electrical signals and their ability to resist high-frequency electromagnetic interference from nearby signals. Overcoming signal integrity violations is important for a successful tape-out.
Some signal integrity effects that may occur in your design include:
Crosstalk: Crosstalk is the unwanted electrical interaction between physically adjacent nets due to capacitive cross-coupling. As technology advances, crosstalk effects become increasingly important. Crosstalk noise can cause glitches on constant signals, leading to incorrect logic propagation. Fixing crosstalk can be achieved through techniques such as double spacing, multiple vias, shielding, buffer insertion, net ordering, and layer assignment changes.
How To fix Crosstalk Issue
Electromigration: Electromigration refers to the movement of metal ions in thin wire connections due to flowing electrons, leading to permanent physical displacement. It can cause shorts and opens in wire connections, resulting in functional failures of the integrated circuit. Techniques to solve electromigration issues include increasing wire width, buffer insertion, upsizing the driver, and switching to higher metal layers.
Techniques to solve EM
Increase the width of the wire
Upsize the driver
Switch the net to the higher metal layer
Antenna Effects: Antenna effects, specifically plasma-induced gate oxide damage, can pose yield and reliability problems during the manufacturing of MOS integrated circuits. Antenna violations occur when rules provided by IC fabs are not followed. Antenna violations are fixed by the router through techniques such as jumper insertion, diode insertion near logic gate input pins, and buffer insertion. These fixes help in connecting gate oxide to the highest metal layer, adding vias near the gate oxide, and addressing charge collection issues.
It’s essential to address these signal integrity violations in order to ensure the proper functioning of the integrated circuits and avoid performance and reliability issues.
Techniques to solve Antenna violation
Diode insertion near logic gate input pin
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