FPGA is called “Field Programmable Gate Array” and it contains ten thousand to more than a million logic gates with programmable interconnection. as the name suggests Programmable interconnections are available for users to perform given functions easily. A typical model FPGA chip is shown in the following given figure. There are I/O blocks, which are designed and numbered according to function. For each module of logic level composition, there are CLBs (Configurable Logic Blocks). The interconnection between CLB and I/O blocks is made with the help of horizontal routing channels, vertical routing channels, and PSM (Programmable Multiplexers).
Types of FPGA
There are three types of FPGA.
Low-end FPGA consumes less power than the other two and is less complex as the numbers of gates are less.
It consumes more power than low-end FPGAs and has more gates, so it is more complex. It provides a balance between performance and cost.
It has a large gate density, so is more complex than mid-range. Their performance is better than low-end and mid-range FPGA.
FPGA Advantage :
- They are cost-efficient.
- FPGAs are reprogrammable.
- No physical manufacturing steps are involved in it
- FPGAs allow you to finish the development of your product in a very short time.
- FPGAs provide better performance than a general CPU and they are capable of handling parallel processing.
FPGA Disadvantages :
- High power consumption
- They are only used where the production volume is low.
- The programming of FPGA is not as simple as C programming.
- For ASIC prototyping,
- Image processing in SDRs,
- For diagnosis and therapy in the medical field.
- In wireless communication such as WiMAX, WCDMA, etc.
- In consumer electronics like flat panel displays, residential set-top boxes, etc.
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